Mahatma Gandhi and Sarojini Naidu during the March. The declaration included the readiness to withhold taxes, and the statement: We believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe also that if any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them the people have a further right to alter it or abolish it.
After that date, Portugese ships would frequently return to Europe laden with spices and commodities that would fetch fabulous prices.
Other European powers looked enviously at this stream of exotica coming from the Orient. Portugal managed to hold on to its preeminent position largely in part to the Treaty of Tordesillas of This treaty had been created to divide the New Worlds between the Catholic countries of Portugal and Spain.
In effect they had carved up these New Worlds with Spain receiving a monopoly of power in most of South America and Portugal in the Indies. Working together, the two Catholic countries were able to maintain an effective blockade of these new markets for the majority of the Sixteenth Century.
The lure of potential wealth of the East was too much for the rising Protestant powers of England and Holland.
The English began to look for a Northern route to the Indies. The Treaty of Tordesillas specifically stated that Portugese and Spanish monopolies were only in effect south of the Cape Verde Islands.
An English company was chartered to undertake just such an expedition. Two years later the crew were found dead on the Siberian coastline. It dawned on the English that there was no northern route to the Indies. Therefore an alternative scheme was hatched. Ina royal charter was granted to the Muscovy company.
This company was set up to explore the possibility of trade through Russia to Persia. Although economically expensive to transport goods this way, the company did actually achieve a modicum of success and allowed some Indian products to be transported back to Northern Europe.
The company actually survived until the latter stages of the Eighteenth Century. Ships would always prove to be a more economically viable way of trading with India. And, as the English could not directly trade with India, its sailors resorted to buccaneering and piracy of the Portugese ships as they headed to Europe with their fabulously valuable cargoes.
It was with the era of Drake and Cavendish looting and shooting their way around the world that the first cracks appeared in the Catholic monopoly. The Navies of the Catholic countries were no longer strong enough to ensure an effective blockade of their New Worlds.
English and Dutch ships began to pass the Cape of Good Hope in increasing numbers. Both nations quickly established Chartered companies to exploit the commercial possiblities presented to them.
The English East India Company was established in However, it was also due to the fact that the English had no products of value to the Mughals.
The English at this time did not produce anything that was even remotely of interest to what was effectively an Indian superpower. This would remain the case for many years to come and would force the English to trade precious gold and silver for the spices and commodoties of India.
The breakthrough in negotiations came when the English demonstrated the one aspect that the Mughals did appreciate; raw military power. Four Portugese galleons and a number of Portugese frigates attempted to repel the English ship.
When this one English ship dispersed the entire fleet of Portugese ships, the Indians were impressed. English stock rose and that of the Portugese fell. Although in truth, the more important fact was that by this time the English had surpassed the Portugese in terms of maritime technology and technique.
The Portugese would never again seriously rival the power of the English at sea. Sir Thomas Roe was painfully aware of the mismatch in power between the two respective powers and found negotiations with the Mughals tedious and difficult at the best of times.
However, after nearly three years of haggling, he managed to gain permission for the EIC to build a factory at the port of Surat. However, this was on the condition that EIC ships escort Mughal vessels on their annual pilgrim to Mecca. This first English toe-hold on the Indian sub-continent would prove to be vitally important as relations broke down with the Dutch.
Inthe Dutch executed 10 English merchants for conspiracy to overthrow their fortress in Amboina in the Indies of the Spice Islands. This soured relations to such an extent that the EIC were forced to abandon their bases throughout the Indies.The Portugese were actually the first European power to come into contact with India when Vasco de Gama sailed into Calicut in After that date, Portugese ships would frequently return to Europe laden with spices and commodities that would fetch fabulous prices.
"If humanity is to progress, Gandhi is inescapable. He lived, thought, and acted, inspired by the vision of humanity evolving toward a world of peaceand harmony.
Achievements: Known as Father of Nation; played a key role in winning freedom for India; introduced the concept of Ahimsa and Satyagraha. Mahatma Gandhi popularly known as Father of Nation played a stellar role in India's freedom struggle.
Born in a Bania family in Kathiawar, Gujarat, his real name. This website is very helpful to me. It gave me a different presence of mind. It helps in quick learning and quick understanding of questions.
These questions comes in exams too. Gandhi, Tamils and the Satyagraha in South Africa. E. S. Reddy At a farewell meeting of the Tamil community in Johannesburg on July 15, , Gandhi said that the Tamils bore the brunt of the satyagraha struggle and that he felt he came to the meeting to meet his “blood-brothers.”.
Tolstoy Farm Mohandas K. Gandhi () attributes the success of the final phase of the satyagraha campaign in South Africa between and to the "spiritual purification and penance" afforded by the Tolstoy Farm.