Each sport and activity requires a specific set of these skills.
Descriptive and Prescriptive Feedback When giving athletes extrinsic feedback about their technical skills, you can either tell them what you saw descriptive feedback or tell them what you think they need to do based on what you saw prescriptive feedback.
Therefore, when you want to alert athletes to the types of corrections they must make to improve some aspect of their performance, you should provide them with prescriptive feedback.
You might tell an inexperienced basketball player to flex her wrist more forcefully as she releases the ball. That way she would have an idea of what she needs to do to improve the follow-through on her jump shot.
In essence, prescriptive feedback represents another example of attention-focusing instructions discussed in chapter 7. Practical Considerations for Giving Feedback You might find some practical considerations helpful when providing extrinsic feedback.
These include when to give feedback, how much feedback to give, how often to give it, and how detailed to make it.
Interestingly, these studies also show that learners are able to improve their skills with relatively little extrinsic feedback. In one study, participants who were instructed to ask for extrinsic feedback whenever they wanted it asked for it less than 10 percent of the time.
Moreover, most of their feedback requests occurred during their first few learning sessions. These findings suggest that you should resist the temptation to provide assistance more frequently and instead allow athletes to practice their skills on their own.
Of course, the more difficult the technical skill, the more likely they will want your feedback. Least helpful for athletes is extrinsic feedback that is virtually identical to their intrinsic feedback.
If the gymnast asks why she keeps overrotating, this indicates that she does not know the reason and needs extrinsic feedback. Moreover, if your athletes enjoy open communication with you, they are more likely to request extrinsic feedback when they need it.
Since all learning involves some sort of problem solving, the most helpful feedback you can provide points athletes toward relevant sources of intrinsic feedback. For a softball batter, that feedback might be to focus on the feel of a level swing or on the relationship between the position of the hands and the direction of the batted ball.
Once athletes are able to identify relevant intrinsic feedback on their own, they will need even less extrinsic feedback from you. Program feedback is more important during the beginning stage of technical skill practice when athletes are getting the general idea of the relative timing pattern of a movement, while parameter feedback is more important after athletes demonstrate that they can produce the fundamental pattern on a consistent basis.
The games approach to practice suggests that athletes need to be given the opportunity to develop their skills in an independent fashion and engage in their own problem solving.
Only when they appear to be at a dead end in their search for solutions or when they stop practicing and ask for your assistance should you offer feedback.
The powerful aspect of this approach is that it allows you to capitalize on those teachable moments when athletes are motivated to hear what you have to say and more likely to incorporate it after they do. On the contrary, your feedback should provide athletes with the most helpful information possible.
Keeping extrinsic feedback simple means giving athletes the type of feedback that is most relevant at a particular moment. In other words, quality is more important than quantity. For example, a beginning soccer player may need performance feedback about the rhythm of his leg swing during the kicking action rather than feedback about the various ways to change the speed and direction of his kicks.
The amount of feedback that is just right also depends on the experience level of the athlete. Extrinsic feedback for a beginning volleyball player should be restricted to one or two specific aspects of performance.
Since athletes usually have more difficulty making program adjustments than parameter adjustments, be sure to make your program feedback simpler than your parameter feedback.
Another way to increase the amount of feedback you provide without overloading athletes with too much information is to use summary feedback or average feedback after a practice session. Summary feedback tells athletes how they performed on each of several practice attempts, while average feedback highlights general tendencies in their performance.
Average feedback for the athlete might be that his plant foot landed slightly beyond the takeoff board for the five attempts.
An important issue to consider when giving summary feedback or average feedback is the number of performance attempts to include in the feedback statement. Generally speaking, the more complex the technical skill or the less experienced the athlete, the fewer attempts you should include in the feedback.
How Often to Give Feedback Recent research suggests that more frequent feedback is not necessarily better when it comes to promoting skill development. In fact, many studies have shown that practicing without extrinsic feedback can actually be more beneficial than practicing with it.
Possible reasons for performance improvements in the absence of extrinsic feedback are that learners are forced to do more of their own problem solving and they devote more of their attention to available intrinsic feedback.
For example, a baseball outfielder practicing his throws to different bases begins to notice the flight path of the ball, see how close to the target it comes, and feel the sensation of the throwing action.
He also begins to recognize errors in his performance and think about ways to adjust his throws. The outfielder might also learn that, tactically speaking, throws need to be directed to the cutoff player so they can be caught and thrown to another base if necessary.
Another problem that arises when feedback is presented too frequently is that athletes become dependent on it.NFL Football Operations’ mission is to establish a culture of clarity, consistency and credibility in all aspects of the greatest game.
Football is an essential piece of America’s fabric, uniting fans, players and communities with a simple yet powerful bond.
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Fitness Training > Facts > Factors of Success in Sports. Factors of Success in Sports. There is a range of physical and mental components that contribute to successful performance in sports.
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Statistical analysis (study) also includes all of the other factors that supported potential draft picks to produce the .
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Some people host game nights, so it’s important to them to have video game consoles, tables and chairs and storage furniture for game discs and board games in their living room. Others enjoy having a group over to watch movies or football, so they’d prioritize a nice TV, ergonomic seating and places guests can put down their food and drinks.