Bibliography Summary Methods of bringing about social change can be divided into three categories: Conventional politics in turn can be divided into authoritarian, representative and participatory systems. Each of these methods has strengths and weaknesses.
Himsa means inflicting pain and injury upon others. Ahimsa, therefore literally means not inflicting pain or injury upon others.
It is usually understood and interpreted as nonviolence. However, nonviolence is just one aspect of ahimsa or non injury. The practice of nonviolence in ancient India In Jainism, Buddhism Passive resistance nonviolence Hinduism, ahimsa or non injury has a much wider spiritual connotation and forms an integral aspect of their principles, philosophies and practices.
For over three thousand years, nonviolence was considered the highest virtue or the virtue of virtues in the ascetic traditions of ancient India. Even in the practice of classical yoga, Ahimsa or nonviolence comes before all yamas because it is believed that the practice of all virtues eventually lead to the state of nonviolence only.
The idea was so ingrained in the minds of the people who practiced spirituality that they accepted their suffering the oppression of others as part of their spiritual discipline.
Ahimsa in Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism For the people in ancient India who made liberation their primary aim or for the enlightened minds who focused upon spiritual practices, the practice of nonviolence was not a mere theory.
The Buddha practiced it and actively applied it to resolve differences among the rulers of his times and prevent wars. He advised people to practice right living on the Eightfold path and avoid hurting or harming others.
He preached against cruelty. The Jains practiced extreme forms of nonviolence as they did not want to injure even the smallest organisms. They made it part of Passive resistance nonviolence vows. While for centuries, Hindus, Jains and Buddhists practiced nonviolence for their spiritual advancement, Mahatma Gandhi added a new dimension to it in modern times when he transformed its principles it into a viable and effective instrument of political will against the oppressive rule of the British in India.
His theory of nonviolence as however political in nature and very different from the kind practice in the ascetic and spiritual world.
Gandhi advocated passive resistance to the rule of British and submission to their aggression, whereas the nonviolence practiced in the ascetic traditions advocated sameness and equanimity under all conditions without any willful reaction whatsoever to all external phenomena.
Who is a truly nonviolent person? The principle of non-violence practiced in Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism is very complex in nature and not confined to mere physical aspect of it.
A truly non-violent person avoids all forms of disturbance. He does not cause any ripples in the world he lives by his willful actions, nor he suffers from any mental modifications within himself because of the pairs of opposites or the actions of others.
He lives and acts as if he does not exist. He bears pain and suffering with equanimity, shows extreme compassion in his dealings with others. He offers no resistance whatsoever to the suffering inflicted upon him by nature, circumstances or others.
He embraces life without conditions and makes no effort to gain things for himself. The various forms of nonviolence Thus, in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist traditions nonviolence is the epitome of detachment and renunciation and practiced in various ways and forms such as the following.
Non injury to all living beings Not causing pain and suffering to others including plants and animals. Compassion towards all living creatures Abstaining from animal and human sacrifices The practice of forgiveness, love and friendliness Indifference or sameness to violent thoughts, words and actions of others Peace and equanimity towards oneself and others Abstaining from eating meat and animal products Abstaining from hunting animals or using animals for entertainment and animal fights Avoiding actions of all kinds in which animals are subjected to unnecessary cruelty and suffering.
Theological Justification of nonviolence in various religious traditions According to Hindu, Buddhist and Jain traditions, all living beings are the same.
They all contain souls and are subject to the same laws of karma. In existence, each living being has its own duty and destiny to fulfill and is subject to the laws of karma and cycle of births and deaths.
Human beings do not enjoy any exalted status in the scheme of things.
|Civil disobedience | kaja-net.com||Our assembly, people of God from Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Oceania included lay people, theologians, members of religious congregations, priests, and bishops. Many of us live in communities experiencing violence and oppression.|
In fact, as intelligent beings, karmically they have greater responsibility to practice peace and avoid harm. These traditions clearly and unequivocally declare that killing a living being is a mortal sin with frightful consequences.
It not only interferes with ones destiny and spiritual progression, but also leads to immense suffering and karmic retribution. Unless otherwise sanctioned by scriptures in specific instances such as saving one's own lifethe act of killing is a bad karma with unhappy consequences for those who indulge in it.
Although beings contain eternal souls, or according to Buddhism temporary souls, which transmigrate from one body to another during rebirth and are not subject to pain or suffering or death, they still experience pain and suffering when they are harmed or subjected to cruelty.
Even an act of unintentional killing will lead to unhappy consequences. Hence one should avoid causing pain and suffering to others by all means and live peacefully. These traditions preach nonviolence in their own individual ways, but their ultimate message and essential purpose is more or less the same.Satyagraha Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह; satya: "truth", graha: "insistence" or "holding firmly to") or holding onto truth or truth force – is a particular form of nonviolent resistance or civil kaja-net.com term satyagraha was coined and developed by Mahatma Gandhi (–).
He deployed satyagraha in the Indian independence movement and . In Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism, ahimsa or non injury has a much wider spiritual connotation and forms an integral aspect of their principles, philosophies and practices.
For over three thousand years, nonviolence was considered the highest virtue or the virtue of virtues in the ascetic traditions.
Civil disobedience, also called passive resistance, refusal to obey the demands or commands of a government or occupying power, without resorting to violence or active measures of opposition; its usual purpose is to force concessions from the government or occupying power.
Civil disobedience has been a major tactic and philosophy of nationalist movements in Africa and India, in the American.
In Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism, ahimsa or non injury has a much wider spiritual connotation and forms an integral aspect of their principles, philosophies and practices. For over three thousand years, nonviolence was considered the highest virtue or the virtue of virtues in the ascetic traditions.
Nonviolent resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being kaja-net.com type of action highlights the desires of an individual or group that feels that something needs to change to improve the current condition of the.
Mahatma Gandhi - Resistance and results: Gandhi was not the man to nurse a grudge. On the outbreak of the South African (Boer) War in , he argued that the Indians, who claimed the full rights of citizenship in the British crown colony of Natal, were in duty bound to defend it.
He raised an ambulance corps of 1, volunteers, out of whom were free Indians and the rest indentured labourers.