Children particularly adolescents who are overweight are more likely to be overweight or obese during adulthood Dietz, and are at risk for a variety of physical and psychosocial complications during their lifetime Ebbeling et al. Thus, it is troubling that the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents in the United States has more than doubled between —65 and —08 Ogden and Carroll, Creating environments where children are encouraged to be physically active and to choose nutrient-dense foods such as fruit and vegetables is thus often the focus of interventions that aim to promote healthy BMI and reduce the risk of childhood obesity Stice et al.
What is intermittent fasting?
The goal is to create conditions of fasting in the body, but not for extreme lengths of time. Some examples of intermittent fast strategies include 10, 8, or 5 hour eating windows throughout the day, or perhaps eating just two meals each day: The evolutionary premise — the argument that proponents of intermittent fasting make — is that humans evolved to optimize their health under less-than-optimal conditions.
Intermittent fasting, they say, is a natural and perhaps even necessary part of being human. The modern-day scientific correlate appears promising, too: Most people are nowadays aware that a calorie-restricted diet has the ability not just to decrease body weight but also to lengthen a human life.
Emerging research is beginning to show, however, that intermittent fasting is just as effective as calorie restriction in ensuring these health benefits!
Intermittent fastingproponents say, also may benefit the fight against cancer, diabetes, and autoimmunity. It is wholly understandable that fasting is all the rage these days. Intermittent fasting women is a specific interest of mine because of what I have witnessed both in myself and in working with literally thousands of women in the PfW community.
Many women Literature review of vegetable consumption to me read more about that in this awesome book that intermittent fasting causes sleeplessness, anxiety, and irregular periods, among many other symptoms hormone imbalance, such as cystic acne.
I have also personally experienced metabolic distress as a result of fasting, which is evidenced by my interest in hypocretin neurons.
After my own bad experience with IF, I decided to investigate intermittent fasting. I looked into both a the fasting literature that paleo fasting advocates refer to, and b the literature that exists out in the metabolic and reproductive research archives.
I was struck by what seemed like an egregious sex-based oversight in that MDA post I linked to above. This startled me because the article MDA cited was for me one of the strongest proponents of sex-specific differences in response to fasting.
This is not to say that Mark is not attentive to who should and who should not be fasting. He knows very well and cautions people against the dangers of fasting while stressed. Still, the mere fact of being more sensitive to fasting simply by being a woman is, I would assert, pretty important for a woman who is contemplating or already practicing IF.
This goes nearly unmentioned in the blogosphere. The animal studies are more equitable, but also a bit less applicable to human studies. It is well-known in both the research and the nutritional communities that caloric restriction is horrible for female reproductive health.
This is not news.
There is an infertility condition — called hypothalamic amenorrhea — that millions of women suffer from due to being overly restrictive. But what of fasting? The few studies that exist point towards no. It is not definitive, since the literature is so sparse, and it necessarily differs for women who are overweight versus normal weight and who have different genetic makeupsbut when it comes to hormones, women of reproductive age may do well to err on the side of caution with fasting.
What follows first is a brief review of what can be gleaned in sex-specific responses to fasting in animal studies. Afterwards I talk about what has been concluded by the few relevant human studies. In this study, they do alternate day fasting, which entails free eating on one day and a fast day on the next.
The study found that brain states while fasting were different for male and female rats. For male rats the change in hippocampus size, hippocampal gene expression, and ambulatory behavior was the same no matter what kind of restricted diet they were on — but for female rats, the degree of change in brain chemistry and in behavior was directly proportional to degree of calorie intake, demonstrating the unique sensitivity of female rats to the starvation response.
Male rats do not experience as dramatic hippocampal and general brain chemistry change as female rats do, and their behaviors, specifically their cognition and their dirunal and nocturnal activity, do not change. They become hyper-alert, have better memories, and are more energetic during the periods in which they are supposed to be sleep.
Theoretically, according to these researchers, this is an adaptive response to starvation. They get smart, they get energetic, they get active, and they stop sleeping. This study found that male reproductivity up-regulates in response to metabolic stress. The results were striking.
Females and males typically play different roles in survival of the species and would be expected to respond differently to food scarcity or excess. Heightened cognition and motor activity, combined with reproductive shutdown, in females may maximize the probability of their survival during periods of energy scarcity and may be an evolutionary basis for the vulnerability of women to anorexia nervosa.
They also found this:Review of data from the literature demonstrating the influence of fruit & vegetable intake on IVF outcomes Generally, research on the effect of nutrition in IVF outcomes, especially fruit and vegetable . International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature.
Nov 15, · Mar. Pertinence of the recent school-based nutrition interventions targeting fruit and vegetable consumption in the United States: a systematic review.
Jun. Examining guidelines for school-based breakfast programs in Canada: a systematic review of the grey literature. review of literature Pushka, H.M.C. and Srivastava, H.C.
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