Sutherland and differential association theory, Freud and psychoanalytical theory, or Pavlov and behavioral theory. The Labeling Approach to Delinquency: State of the Theory as a Function of Method. Labeling theory is a theoretical concept that is well-respected throughout the criminal justice field, and is predicated upon the hypothesis that juveniles are more prone to delinquency when labelled as delinquent or when placed into contact with the formal criminal justice system.
These perspectives or theories provide a framework for understanding observations on topics such as deviance. The symbolic interactionist perspective of sociology views society as a product of everyday social interactions of individuals. Symbolic interactionists also study how people use symbols to create meaning.
In studying deviance, these theorists look at how people in everyday situations define deviance, which differs between cultures and settings.
Theory of Differential Association Sociologist Edwin Sutherland studied deviance from the symbolic interactionist perspective.
The basic tenet of his theory of differential association is that deviance is a learned behavior—people learn it from the different groups with which they associate. His theory counters arguments that deviant behavior is biological or due to personality.
According to Sutherland, people commit deviant acts because they associate with individuals who act in a deviant manner. He further explained exactly what one learns from people who commit deviance.
He said that the future deviant learns values different from those of the dominant culture, as well as techniques for committing deviance. From the gang, these new members learn that stealing, carrying a gun, and using drugs are acceptable behaviors, whereas they were not before. In the meantime, the norms they learned at home are no longer acceptable within the gang environment, and they must reject those norms and values to accept the new ones.
Current gang members also teach new members how to commit specific deviant acts, such as hotwiring a car or breaking into a home. The closer the relationship, the more likely someone is to be influenced. Parents who worry that their children are socializing with an undesirable crowd have a justified concern.
If an adolescent changes schools and his new peer group smokes marijuana, the new student is more likely to smoke marijuana. On the other hand, if a student moves to a new school where no one smokes marijuana, he is less likely to take up the habit.Labeling theory is the theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them.
It is associated with the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping. In contrast, labeling theory portrays criminality as a product of society’s reaction to the individual. It contends that the individual, once convicted of a crime, is . · Stigmatization is an interactive process, labeling theorists blame criminal justice agencies, originally designed for its control, for actually helping to maintain and amplify criminal behavior.
· Crimes, such as murder, rape, and assault, are only bad or evil because people label them as such. For example, a killing may be a murder, an execution, an accident, self-defense, or a legitimate act in war. A theory that states that people choose criminal behavior consciously.
The theory also states that people may choose to commit crime upon realizing that the crime's benefits probably outweigh the consequences of breaking the law. in part, of the negative labels . Juvenile Delinquency - Criminology and Public Policy ****THE INFORMATION BELOW WAS THE BASE USED TO COMPLETE THE PHASE 2 ASSIGNMENT***** Serial references are those that are over years-old and that put forth a theory that has been deemed to be a foundation for other theories.
From the viewpoint of a liberal democratic person, there are several possible theories into the cause of juvenile delinquency. One of those theories is conflict theory.
Conflict Theory is, basically, the theory that because of conflicts (strife, struggles, disagreements), the juvenile becomes a delinquent individual.