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Description[ edit ] Joseph Nye's book describing the concept of "soft power" Joseph Nye introduced the concept of "soft power" in the late s.
There are several ways one can achieve this: This soft power — getting others to want the outcomes you want — co-opts people rather than coerces them. Soft power can be wielded not just by states but also by all actors in international politics, such as NGOs or international institutions.
A country's soft power, according to Nye, rests on three resources: In this sense, it is also important to set the agenda and attract others in world politics, and not only to force them to change by threatening military force or economic Global non power driven hand tool. This soft power — getting others to want the outcomes that you want — co-opts people rather than coerces them.
In his book, Nye argues that soft power is a more difficult instrument for governments to wield than hard power for two reasons: It is not necessarily better to twist minds than to twist arms. It is simply a form of power, one way of getting desired outcomes. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message Soft power has been criticized as being ineffective by authors such as Niall Ferguson in the preface to Colossus.
Neorealist and other rationalist and neorationalist authors with the exception of Stephen Walt dismiss soft power out of hand as they assert that actors in international relations respond to only two types of incentives: As a concept, it can be difficult to distinguish between soft power from hard power.
Bush 's use of the phrase "you are either with us or with the terrorists" was in fact an exercise of hard power. Though military and economic force was not used to pressure other states to join its coalition, a kind of force — representational force — was used.
This kind of force threatens the identity of its partners, forcing them to comply or risk being labelled as evil. This being the case, soft power is therefore not so soft.
Measurement[ edit ] The first attempt to measure soft power through a composite index was created and published by the Institute for Government and the media company Monocle in The index is said to measure the soft power resources of countries, and does not translate directly into ability influence.
Monocle has published an annual Soft Power Survey since then. Soft power is contrasted with hard power, which has historically been the predominant realist measure of national power, through quantitative metrics such as population size, concrete military assets, or a nation's gross domestic product.
But having such resources does not always produce the desired outcomes, as the United States discovered in the Vietnam War. The extent of attraction can be measured by public opinion polls, by elite interviews, and case studies.
And soft power is more than just persuasion or the ability to move people by argument, though that is an important part of it. It is also the ability to attract, and attraction often leads to acquiescence. The generation of soft power is also affected in positive and negative ways by a host of non-state actors within and outside the country.
Those actors affect both the general public and governing elites in other countries, and create an enabling or disabling environment for government policies. In other cases, where being seen as friendly to another country is seen as a local political kiss of death, the decline or absence of soft power will prevent a government from obtaining particular goals.Dane Wigington kaja-net.com Exposing and halting the global climate engineering/weather warfare/biological warfare assault must be our greatest priority if we are to have any chance of salvaging what is yet left of Earth's life support systems.
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