Note that the longer the hydrocarbon molecule, the more flexible or wiggly it gets! More on relating the physical properties of the hydrocarbon fractions to their uses and dangers The important physical properties of hydrocarbons like alkanes all depend on the forces between the molecules - the intermolecular forces intermolecular bonding. Quite simply, with important consequences e.
Benzene, in slight excess, is mixed with an alkene or chloroalkane in the presence of an acid catalyst, usually a solid zeolite ion exchangealuminium chloride AlCl3 or hydrofluoric acid HFto produce an alkylbenzene sometimes called detergent alkylate.
The alkylbenzene varies in average molecular mass, depending upon the starting materials and catalyst used and is often a mixture in which the length of the alkyl side chain varies between 10 and 14 carbon atoms.
Historically these included branches in the side chains with the result that they biodegrade very slowly and lead to foaming in rivers and sewage plants. By law, in most countries today, the surfactant must have side chains which are not branched so they degrade more rapidly.
Straight chain alkenes for the above process can be produced from ethene using a Ziegler catalyst triethyl aluminium. Triethyl aluminium reacts with ethene at ca K and atm to form aluminium alkyls, for example: When heated in excess ethene, straight chain alkenes, with the double bond at the end of the chain an a-alkeneare produced: The mixture is then separated into fractions by distillation, the fraction of alkenes containing 10 to 14 carbon atoms being used to make the surfactants.
These are used together with other surfactants in powder and liquid laundry detergents such as Ariel, Daz, Persil and Surf. The alkyl sulfates are also used in personal care products such as toothpaste and are manufactured by treating the alcohol with sulfur trioxide.
The product is then neutralised with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to form a sodium alkyl sulfate: The alcohols are either produced from carboxylic acids obtained from oils, obtained naturally, for example from palm kernel oil or coconut oil, or alternatively from long-chain alkenes, manufactured from ethene.
There are two processes for making the alcohols from ethene. As described above, aluminium triethyl reacts with ethene to produce compounds such as: Instead of heating with excess ethene to produce a-alkenes, the aluminium alkyl is treated with oxygen and then water to produce long chain alcohols: In the first stage, ethene is passed, under pressure of ca atm, into a solvent usually a diol, such as butane-1,4-diol containing a nickel salt at K.
It yields a mixture of a-alkenes which are separated by fractional distillation. These are reacted with carbon monoxide and hydrogen hydroformylation to yield straight-chain aldehydes, which on reduction form alcohols.
In the manfacture of SLES the primary alkyl alcohol from a synthetic or natural source and typically a blend based around dodecanol is first ethoxylated with 1 to 3 molar equivalents of epoxyethane as described below for the manufacture of nonionic surfactants.
The product is then sulfated using sulfur trioxide and neutralized with alkali to form the alkyl ether sulfate: These materials are preferred by product formulators for many applications dishwashing liquids, shower gels, shampoo, etc because they are milder to the skin than alkyl sulfates.
They also generate less foam which is an advantage in the formulation of laundry machine products. Although they are produced in much smaller quantities than the anionics, there are several types, each used for a specific purpose.Hi and welcome to freesciencelessons.
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A Dual Skid Continuous Distillation System Provides Compact Solution. A two-part design was developed for an ethanol extraction system that needed to fit into a small space as part of EPIC’s turnkey responsibility process.
Mercury is a liquid metal and bromine is a liquid non-metal. Solution 05 Sodium metal is soft and diamond is an extremely hard non-metal. Solution 06 Diamond is a non-metal which is good conductor of electricity. Copper is an element, water is a compound and air is a mixture.
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Charcoal briquettes appeared on the markets of developed countries as a serious alternative to lump charcoal in the early fifties with the development of methods for producing fine charcoal from sawdust and bark on a large scale (22).