The goal is to develop object permanence; achieves basic understanding of causality, time, and space. Pre-operational stage Toddler and Early Childhood 2—7 years Symbols or language skills are present; memory and imagination are developed; nonreversible and nonlogical thinking; shows intuitive problem solving; begins to see relationships; grasps concept of conservation of numbers; egocentric thinking predominates.
We will look at the main findings to have emerged from each area. Forced compliance occurs when an individual performs an action that is inconsistent with his or her beliefs. This prediction has been tested experimentally: In an intriguing experiment, Festinger and Carlsmith asked participants to perform a series of dull tasks such as turning pegs in a peg board for an hour.
Aim Festinger and Carlsmith investigated if making people perform a dull task would create cognitive dissonance through forced compliance behavior. Method In their laboratory experiment, they used 71 male students as participants to perform a series of dull tasks such as turning pegs in a peg board for an hour.
Almost all of the participants agreed to walk into the waiting room and persuade the confederate that the boring experiment would be fun.
They could only overcome that dissonance by coming to believe that the tasks really were interesting and enjoyable. Decision Making Life is filled with decisions, and decisions as a general rule arouse dissonance.
For example, suppose you had to decide whether to accept a job in an absolutely beautiful area of the country, or turn down the job so you could be near your friends and family.
Either way, you would experience dissonance. If you took the job you would miss your loved ones; if you turned the job down, you would pine for the beautiful streams, mountains, and valleys. Both alternatives have their good points and bad points.
The rub is that making a decision cuts off the possibility that you can enjoy the advantages of the unchosen alternative, yet it assures you that you must accept the disadvantages of the chosen alternative.
People have several ways to reduce dissonance that is aroused by making a decision Festinger, One thing they can do is to change the behavior.
As noted earlier, this is often very difficult, so people frequently employ a variety of mental maneuvers. A common way to reduce dissonance is to increase the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and to decrease the attractiveness of the rejected alternative.
This is referred to as "spreading apart the alternatives. Method Female participants were informed they would be helping out in a study funded by several manufacturers.
Participants were also told that they would receive one of the products at the end of the experiment to compensate for their time and effort. The products included an automatic coffee maker, an electric sandwich grill, an automatic toaster, and a portable radio.
Participants in the control group were simply given one of the products. Because these participants did not make a decision, they did not have any dissonance to reduce.
Individuals in the low-dissonance group chose between a desirable product and one rated 3 points lower on an 8-point scale. Participants in the high-dissonance condition chose between a highly desirable product and one rated just 1 point lower on the 8-point scale.
After reading the reports about the various products, individuals rated the products again. Findings Participants in the high-dissonance condition spread apart the alternatives significantly more than did the participants in the other two conditions.
In other words, they were more likely than participants in the other two conditions to increase the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and to decrease the attractiveness of the unchosen alternative. Effort It also seems to be the case that we value most highly those goals or items which have required considerable effort to achieve.
This is probably because dissonance would be caused if we spent a great effort to achieve something and then evaluated it negatively. To reduce this dissonance, we are motivated to try to think that the task turned out well.
A classic dissonance experiment by Aronson and Mills demonstrates the basic idea. Aim To investigate the relationship between dissonance and effort. Method Female students volunteered to take part in a discussion on the psychology of sex.
In the control condition, they went straight into the main study. In all conditions, they then heard a very boring discussion about sex in lower animals. They were asked to rate how interesting they had found the discussion, and how interesting they had found the people involved in it. Conclusion If a voluntary experience which has cost a lot of effort turns out badly, dissonance is reduced by redefining the experience as interesting.
This justifies the effort made. Critical Evaluation There has been a great deal of research into cognitive dissonance, providing some interesting and sometimes unexpected findings. It is a theory with very broad applications, showing that we aim for consistency between attitudes and behaviors, and may not use very rational methods to achieve it.
It has the advantage of being testable by scientific means i.In the field of psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental discomfort (psychological stress) experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values.
This discomfort is triggered by a situation in which a belief of a person clashes with new evidence perceived by that person. When confronted with.
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Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance, etc.
Cognitive dissonance is a very powerful motivator which will often lead us to change one or other of the conflicting belief or action.
The discomfort often feels like a tension between the two opposing thoughts. What are some of the ways that people try to reduce cognitive dissonance?
Describe them and describe how they might be used when a person who believes that it is important to give money to. If you’re interested in psychology and human behavior, you’ve probably heard the phrase cognitive kaja-net.com’s the term coined by psychologist Leon Festinger in to describe “the.