In the post-World War II environment, fostered by international economic institutions and rebuilding programs, international trade and investment dramatically expanded. By the s, the effects of the flow of trade and investment became increasingly visible, both in terms of the benefits and the disruptive effects. As with all human endeavors, globalization processes are strongly affected by the values and motivation of the people involved in the process. In theory, globalization should benefit all people because it can produce greater overall economic value.
Begin by opening your learning journal for this activity. Globalisation describes a world environment in which there is relatively free and frequent movement of goods, capital, people, information and ideas internationally.
The lessons in the previous activity were guiding students towards an understanding of some of the many consequences of globalisation. This activity takes a step backwards and provides evidence and examples of globalisation, clarifies the different meanings of globalisation and the drivers behind the many globalising processes in the world.
We saw in the World Core Curriculum and the examples of global education, that globalisation can emphasize the sharing of cultural experiences and building a global culture of peace. However, it is economic globalisation that is of concern to many.
The economic processes of globalisation are not new, however. For thousands of years, people have been buying and selling to each other across great distances. However, not everyone benefited from these Concept of globalisation experiences of globalisation.
The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade saw over ten million Africans shipped to the Americas in 35, voyages between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. While sending cottonsilkindigo dye and tea back to England, the Company made its greatest profits forcing Indian farmers to grow poppy flowers which were manufactured into opium in company-owned factories and then sold into China against the will of the Imperial government.
This eventually led to the Opium Wars between China between Britain. The 19th and early 20th Centuries were also a time of very rapidly increasing free movement of goods, capital and people. New technology — in the form of the telegraph and steamships — made international communication and transportation much faster, easier and cheaper.
Byalmost all of Africa, Asia, the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean had been colonized by European countries to advance their wealth and power. This was achieved by using military power to rule colonies as sources as cheap, near slave labour and abundant, nearly free natural resources.
These resources were sent to the factories in the colonial powers, where they underpinned the industrialisation and economic growth Europe and North America. Despite becoming politically independent in the years after World War II, most former colonies remained tied into the global economy as suppliers of raw materials, low-paid labour and markets for manufactured imports.
Very few countries have been successful in breaking out of this pattern. This is the process known as neo-colonialism. Economic globalisation has been advanced by five key factors in the past fifty years: To encourage economic growth and investment, governments have privatized many previously government owned services and industries and deregulated economic activity to allow market forces greater scope.
The lending and development policies of international agencies and banks, to open their economies to international goods, services, practices and ideas. Large multinational corporations have replaced governments as the vehicle for economic domination and many have grown to be larger and more powerful than most countries.
Rapid advances in technology, especially in manufacturing, communication and transport in recent decades, has seen the industrial revolution replaced by the information and services revolution.
The rise in per capita income generated by these processes has fuelled a massive rise in consumerism and created a perpetual cycle — or a treadmill — of production and consumption.
These five factors are analyzed in detail in Activity 4. The important point to note is that they are mutually reinforcing.
That is, rapid advances in information technology and computerisation, for example, have reduced the time and costs of global communications, thus reinforcing the effects of these economic factors. Faster, easier and cheaper communications have enabled the rapid transfer of huge amounts of money electronically and the organisation of production on a multi-continental scale.
For example, the typical family car now contains parts from all over the world. See an animated film of the globalized supply chains involved in the manufacture of televisions, including case studies from Ethiopia, Turkey, China, India and Mexico.
More than just economies Economic globalisation is a pervasive part of our daily lives — but globalization is more than just economics. There are many other examples and forms of globalisation, and evidence is found in all aspects of daily life, just as we saw in the story, Good Morning World!
What sort of evidence would convince you that globalisation is a pervasive part of daily life? Select six types of evidence for detailed analysis.
Summarise what you have learnt, this far, about globalisation in your Learning Journal.Globalisation refers to the process by which the world’s local and regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated together through a global network of communication, transportation and trade.
With reference to industry it is also the shift to a globalised economic system dominated by supranational (across and above the governments of nations) corporate trade and banking. The debate over the positive and negative effects of globalization is a hot topic for many individuals, agencies, organizations and government departments who find themselves in a position to defend or attack the current globalization trends.
Three Concepts of Globalization Jens Bartelson University of Stockholm abstract: This article is a brief inquiry into the meaning and function of the concept of globalization within .
Globalization Trends Globalization is an abstract concept that refers to a complex process involving political, economic, and sociocultural changes. Globalization is a contested concept that refers to shrinkage of time and space (Steger, ).
According to another definition “globalization is the diminution or elimination of. This article is a brief inquiry into the meaning and function of the concept of globalization within the social sciences during the last decade.
Describing the ontological presuppositions and historical trajectory of the concept of globalization, this article distinguishes three distinct senses of.