Brief history of istanbul essay

A brief overview of the Orthodox Church's early history Sponsored link.

Brief history of istanbul essay

By the the main shrine in pagan Arabia, the Kaaba in Mecca, was erected. After receiving profound revelations supposedly from an angel, and stirred by the polytheistic paganism and disorder at the Kaaba, the prophet went forth, rejected by his people, on his Hijra migration from Mecca to Medina.

The Hijra of Mohammed in marks the beginning of the Islamic era. Two years later Mohammed's followers defeated the Meccans at the Battle of Badr and in Mecca was conquered by Mohammed and became the spiritual center of Islam. The prophet died in and was succeeded by Abu Bakr as the first caliph.

The official version of the Koran was established in during the reign of Uthman, 18 years after the prophet's death.

Brief history of istanbul essay

By there was considerable civil war within Islam among the "descendants" of Mohammed - disputes of all kinds about who was the legitimate, appointed heir to the faith. Shi'ite extremism in Iraq was part of this revolution and began in These root disputations persist to the present day - Islam is a divided religion in many ways.

In the Arabs conquer Syria and Iraq, followed by Egypt, then Persia in - as part of the charge they believe was given to them by Allah Brief history of istanbul essay his prophet Mohammed. Arab armies moved into the Holy Land and were in full control there by Historian Steve Runciman recounts the conquest of Jerusalem: On a February day in the year A.

He was dressed in worn, filthy robes, and the army that followed him was rough and unkempt; but its discipline was perfect. At his side was the Patriarch Sophronius, as chief magistrate of the surrendered city. Omar rode straight to the site of the Temple of Solomon, whence his friend Mahomet had ascended into heaven.

Brief history of istanbul essay

Watching him stand there, the Patriarch remembered the words of Christ and murmured through his tears: Because the holy site had been neglected, he made the Christian Patriarch Sophronius grovel in the muck.

Afterward Omar set about clearing the site. He built a wooden mosque on the compound. Most scholars believe the mosque was built on the foundations of an early Christian church. One well-known historical account contains the following details: The great mosque of Jerusalem, Al Masjid al Aksa, the " Further Mosque," derives its name from the traditional Night Journey of Muhammad, to which allusion is made in the words of the Kuran xvii.

According to the received account, Muhammad was on this occasion mounted on the winged steed called Al Burak "the Lightning" and, with the angel Gabriel for escort, was carried from Makkah Meccafirst to Sinai, and then to Bethlehem, after which they came to Jerusalem.

And he tied up Al Burak to a ring, to which the prophets of old had also tied their steeds. Entering the Haram Area by the gateway, afterwards known as the Gate of the Prophet, Muhammad and Gabriel went up to the Sacred Rock, which of old times had stood in the centre of Solomon's Temple; and in its neighbourhood meeting the company of the prophets, Muhammad proceeded to perform his prayer-prostrations in the assembly of his predecessors in the prophetic office Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and others of God's ancient apostles.

From the Sacred Rock Muhammad, accompanied by Gabriel, next ascended, by a ladder of light, up into heaven; and, in anticipation, was vouchsafed the sight of the delights of Paradise.

Passing through the seven heavens, Muhammad ultimately stood in the presence of Allah, from whom he received injunctions as to the prayers his followers were to perform.

Thence, after a while, he descended again to earth; and, alighting at the foot of the ladder of light, stood again on the Sacred Rock at Jerusalem. The return journey homeward was made after the same fashion - on the back of the steed Al Burak and the Prophet reached Makkah again before the night had waned.

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Such, in outline, is the tradition of the Prophet's Night Journey, which especially sanctifies the Rock and the Haram Area in the sight of all true believers. After the capitulation of Jerusalem to 'Omar in A.The Berlin Wall—symbol of a divided city within a divided nation within a divided continent—was grounded in decades-old historical divisions at the end of World War II.

History of Istanbul, experience the modern and ancient historic past events, people and governments of Istanbul - Lonely Planet Lonely Planet Travel Guides and Travel Information Hi there, we use cookies to improve your experience on our website.

Istanbul is the city of history, culture and diversity. It is now being considered even as a place for educational tourism, as it has one of the world's oldest universities.

The administrative capital of Turkey has always been Istanbul. The history of the Jews in Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Yahudileri, Turkish Jews; Hebrew: יהודים טורקים ‬ Yehudim Turkim, Ladino: Djudios Turkos) covers the 2, years that Jews have lived in what is now have been Jewish communities in Asia Minor since at least the 5th century BCE and many Spanish and Portuguese Jews expelled from Spain were welcomed into the Ottoman.

Renamed Istanbul, it became the third and last capital of the Ottoman Empire. It was the nerve center for military campaigns that were to enlarge the Ottoman Empire dramatically. By the mid 's, Istanbul, with a population of almost half a million, was a major cultural, political, and commercial center.

Christianity A brief overview of the Orthodox Church's early history. Sponsored link. The origins of the Orthodox Church can be traced back continuously to the earliest Christian movement.

History of Istanbul - All About Turkey