The study indicates many differences in the cognitive reactions, whereas affective reactions and preferences for the commercials were more similar. Children tend to prefer both cognitive and emotional content directed at their own age. Special attention has been paid to the effect of violent programs on children's aggressiveness, or to the more specific effects of commercials and commercial programs on children e.
Gender Role Stereotyping on Nickelodeon Programming Gelsey Wallner Western Connecticut State University Abstract This study examines gender stereotyping for female characters on children's programming and what messages these stereotypes might portray to the children watching.
Five shows were chosen from the Nickelodeon television network based on the gender of the main character and the targeted age audience of the show. The female characters were analyzed via a survey instrument that consisted of basic female stereotypes: Nickelodeon prides itself on running a gender-neutral network Benezra and while this study does find gender-neutral results, these findings are more negative than positive.
Introduction One part of the field of communication that has been studied heavily is socialization and its effects on society.
Nancy Signorielli defines socialization as, "the way people learn about their culture and acquire some of its values, beliefs, perspectives, and social norms" Particular aspects of socialization are beliefs about gender roles. One theory that is not specifically applied to gender role socialization but has been thought to be important is Bandura's Social Learning Theory.
According to Bandura's theory, gender role stereotyping is something children learn through everyday interactions from their immediate social environment Thompson and Zerbinos Bandura's theory also states that a child's "comparison with distorted television versions of social reality can foster shared misconceptions of people, places, or things" This theory implies that gender role stereotyping is a belief that is learned, but from whom?
Signorielli suggests that historically it was family and friends who had the most influence on a young child but now it is the mass media, specifically television. Signorielli proposes that television as a communications medium is the most important tool in the socialization of children.
She states, "television is found in practically every American home; it requires only minimal skills for understanding; and its visual nature makes it particularly appealing to youngsters" Barner refers to television as the "most popular, constant, and consistent source of information on, among other things, socialization, including that which is expected, accepted, and taken for granted" Television then becomes the most important learning tool that teaches the socialization of how "gender fits into society" Barner Consequently, children may exhibit these gender-biased behaviors and develop the gender-biased attitudes that they see on television Witt Witt states that, "studies show that preschoolers spend an average of nearly 30 hours a week watching television and by the time children are 16 years old, they have spent more time watching television than going to school".
Barner says that by the time a child arrives at kindergarten they will be able to name more fictional characters from television than people in real life.
So while children are spending so much time in front of their television what images of gender are they seeing? According to Witt, "men on television are often portrayed as rational, ambitious, smart, competitive, powerful, stable, violent, and tolerant while women are sensitive, romantic, attractive, happy, warm, sociable, peaceful, fair, submissive, and timid.
Signorielli conducted her own research for the Cultural Indicators Project that found women in traditional and stereotypical roles. The Cultural Indicators Project also found out that women on television who were employed outside of the home had jobs that were traditionally meant for females such as nurses, secretaries, waitresses, and teachers Signorielli Barner discusses how men and women receive different consequences for their actions on television.
Men are rewarded for their behavior while women are more often ignored for theirs. While the content of programming has these gender role stereotypes there are still questions about how much of a correlation there is between the programming and gender role development in children.
Thompson and Zerbinos report that, "among children, heavy viewers of television have more stereotyped gender role conceptions than do light viewers and that peer and media influences on gender development are stronger than parental influences.
Peer influences more strongly impacted present-orientated gender preferences, whereas media use affected future expectations.
Signorielli suggests that children learn about jobs and what sex you are traditionally supposed to be for the position.
She states "DeFleur and DeFleur found that television was an important source of occupational knowledge for children and that television portrayals often led to gender-stereotyped views of occupations" Another study she reports on was, "Jeffries-Fox and Signorielli's examination of data from a three year panel study revealed that television was an important source of knowledge about occupations and that many of the adolescent respondents' open-ended responses revealed conceptions about occupations that were consistent with aspects of the television portrayals of these jobs, including stereotypes" Barner discusses another study that proves the association of television to gender role development, "Frueh and McGhee and McGhee and Frueh found that children who watch high amounts of television have stronger traditional sex-role development.
In two separate studies of children in kindergarten, second, fourth, and sixth grades, the researchers found that amount of television viewing was positively associated with stereotyping of both males and females. Thompson and Zerbinos state that children do in fact model themselves and their behaviors after characters from television.
They also suggest that children are more interested in characters that are the same sex and that girls are at a disadvantage because there are more television shows airing with male leads.
They state, "Network executives have said that boys outnumber girls in the two to eleven year old audience on Saturday morning. If a show is to be successful, they say, it must appeal to boys, who will not watch shows that have girls as lead characters although girls will watch programs with male leads" Durkin and Nugent studies reveal, "There is evidence that young children tend to focus on same-sex information, although girls often know more about both sexes than do boys.
It has also been found that children of both sexes view the male role more rigidly and are likely to hold stronger associations for male activities.
She also found however that, "the identification of boys with television characters was positively related to perceptions of masculine attitudes physical strength and activity level and girls' identification was positively related to perceptions of physical attractiveness" Barner gives a good example of if a girl sees her favorite actress on television constantly ignored for her actions she will expect the same while also not anticipating any consequences either.Early television exposure in children ages is associated with attention problems at age 7, according to a study from Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center in Seattle published in the.
The exposure of American children and adolescents to television continues to exceed the time they spend in the classroom: 15 hours versus 12 hours by the time they graduate.1 According to recent Nielsen data, the average child and/or adolescent watches an average of nearly three hours of television per day.2These numbers have not decreased significantly over the past 10 years.3 By the.
This article argues that commodity ﬂow is a deﬁning characteristic of children’s television programming, and that this ﬂow of commodity and corporate-brand images builds into . Television viewing plays an important role in the lives of many young children and has received a great deal of attention in the public as well as in research.
This review examined research on television and literacy development in early childhood, including studies of messages about literacy in children's programs as well as the impact of specific programs on young viewers' literacy development. an analysis of children’s television audiences and program ratings between and The first study, Attachment A: Children’s television viewing— Community research.
A meta-analysis of the early research on effects of television found surprisingly strong, positive effects of exposure to prosocial content. Hearold () reviewed studies on television and social.