Characteristics Arising out of the rebellious mood at the beginning of the twentieth century, modernism was a radical approach that yearned to revitalize the way modern civilization viewed life, art, politics, and science.
Antonio Gaudi, Casa Battlo, Frank Lloyd Wright, Taliesin I, Richard Neutra, Lovell House, Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater - Dom nad wodospadem, Frei Otto, Olympic Stadium, Munich, In parallel with the international style based on the geometric abstractionism, standardization and industrializationdeveloped organic architecture, designed to create harmony of the artificial environment created by humans to the natural environment of nature.
This harmony can be interpreted in several ways and hence many misunderstandings about assigning individual objects to organic architecture. Often the organic architecture includes such objects whose form and material selection have been inspired by the world of plants and animals.
The dynamic, curved line is the opposite of cool, "soulless" geometry. On this basis, the organic architecture includes buildings of Antonio Gaudi, Art Nouveau ornaments, expressionist works of Mendelsohn and Steiner, and virtually every building resembling a fish, bird, mammoth or dragon, and covered with thatch, reed, wood shavings, leather, etc.
In addition to these, the architects of "organic" include, for example, Aalto, Saarinen, Makovecz, and even Scharoun - the author of Berlin Philharmonic.
Such buildings have nothing to do with the "organic architecture", although it may be helpful to create for them a type of "biological expressionism. Such "structures" are, for example, a network of spider, bubble, stock bamboo or cereal crops column.
This consistently used inspiration usually leads to a form associated with the world of living nature, but their automatic reckoning for organic architecture does not seem justified, because the method itself does not guarantee the preservation of what is the basis for harmony - the balance between the parts of a whole, and between whole and the environment.
A third way of understanding of organic architecture is based on the definition of the organism, which as opposed to a mechanism consisting of interchangeable parts is the result of natural growth of form.
In short - a mechanism arises from the independent, external elements, while the organism develops from within, developing its elements as integral parts.
Implementing such a concept can lead either to a building consisting of several interpenetrating elements, or to a complex of separate buildings, organized around the functional center that recognizes the natural environmental conditions. Organic character of such architecture is independent of materials and structures used, because the result solely from the way of space organisation.
Prairie houses built by Frank Lloyd Wright before announced so understood organic architecture. Its full implementation were: Fallingwater is a set of functionally distinct but interpenetrating spaces, connected by the abstract structure of reinforced concrete terraces, glass walls, and free-hanging over the mountain stream.
Organic architecture understood as a particular way of space organisation and as relationship between buildings and natural environment is completely independent from the architectural style of building treated as an object and can be successfully implemented even in the forms typical for the international style.
An example of such an architecture can be garden part of Lovell House, designer by Richard Neutra inconsidered the classic work of international style.
Totalitarian architecture was also a marginal phenomenon, even though the victory of the Soviet Union has lengthened for decades the process of dying of utopian ideas of social and urban planning.
The only important effect of the war was the exodus of European avant-garde to the United States Gropius, van der Rohe etc.
Postwar Architecture faced an unresolved problem - mass housing. International Style, stubbornly called functionalism, exhausted its possibilities. Functional Architecture is an architecture of paradoxes: International Style architects created the idea of building mass, but precisely in this area they suffered a spectacular defeat, whose symbol became Pruit Igoe housing estate.
However, the modernist architects did not want to admit defeat, and concentrated their activities in the field of large-scale public architecture. Mies van der Rohe, Farnsworth House, Style International has created a work, whose brilliance and determination can only be compared to "Black square on white" by Kazimir Malevich.
Both buildings are magnificent examples of consistently realized idea of functional architecture, the two wonderfully combine internal and external space, but in this space, there was no place for a real existing human being.
Farnsworth House and the Glass House influenced the mentality of modern, particularly young architects. Some of these projects have been completed. However, both buildings have features art-deco style - they were not the image of the absolute. Raymond Hood, McGraw Hill Building, Nowy York, InMies van der Rohe designed two apartment buildings in Chicago and this enabled him to realize the vision, which he presented at the Friedrichstrasse skyscraper proposal in Implementation and the positive acceptance of Mies buildings have opened the way for a whole mass of buildings designed by the same rules Lever House - Gordon Bunshaft, Gordon Bunshaft, Lever House, Lever House introduced a modification, which seems to be purely cosmetic surgery, but it is very important - dull box of the main building received a crowning cornice, which was equivalent to the cornice of a typical building of the first Chicago School.
The fact that this element hides the technical floor is irrelevant - the cornice is a purely aesthetic. Modernist architecture has suffered a complete defeat in the field of mass housing - probably because it was the first attempt to realize the wrong and inhuman idea of the anonymous crowd crammed in the anonymous framework of the industrialized, high-rise, multifamily housing.
Architecture has failed because she could not solve the task incorrectly worded. Even Frank Lloyd Wright suffered a defeat in attempting to solve the problem of affordable single-family housing.
He tried to build a "cheap villa for the poor millionaire" and his Usonian Houses were just ugly, wooden boxes.
The problem was, that abstraction can be humanized only in two ways - by the differentiation of texture and detail and therefore the type of ornamentor by striking differentiation of form, which inevitably leads to some version of Expressionism which in combination gives the art-deco style.
Both methods are a denial of international style, in which there was no ornament at all, and combining of volumes is subordinated to the function. Le Corbusier, the Pope of the international style, has done a most radical reversal, trying both ways.The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regions, overarching stylistic trends, and dates.
Modernism became increasingly popular in architecture in Japan starting in the s. Pre-Columbian. Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
  Modern history can be further broken down into periods. "Form follows function" was an architectural battle cry by the s, and although many modern buildings do feature lovely ornamentation, it was the goal of the modernists to shift the focal point of architecture from ornamentation and interior design to construction and form.
A Brief Contextual History of American and Italian Cinema American filmmaking is as much a vital industry, an integral mechanism of the economy as any industry.
American cinema was built upon capitalism, and in a society promoting greed, Hollywood films have been historically money-driven. Jun 10, · A Brief History of Everything, steeped in extensive research, Wilber believes that although Spirit is entirely present at every stage of evolution, it is progressively manifested in human culture so that each stage of cultural evolution reveals something new worth conserving.
While modernism gave us a sense of universal human. Our current period in history has been called by many the postmodern age (or "postmodernity") and many contemporary critics are understandably interested in making sense of the time in which they live.
In order to keep clear the distinction between postmodernity and postmodernism, each set .